Obstructive sleep apnea affects around 20 million Americans and can lead to hypertension, heart attack, stroke, depression, muscle pain, fibromyalgia, morning headaches, and excessive daytime sleepiness.

Tuesday, March 15, 2016

Oral Appliance Therapy in Sleep Apnea Patients Improve Cognitive and Psychomotor Performance

This new study in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine shows improvement in cognitive function in patients with sleep apnea.

Other recent outcome studies have shown improvement in Blood Pressure and Cardiac Function.

Review these abstracts and you will understand why more and more sleep physicians consider oral appliances to be a first line treatment for moderate obstructive sleep apnea and an alternative for severe sleep apnea.

Find oral Appliance Therapy in Chicago:

www.IHateCPAP.com   find a dentist section

www.ThinkBetterLife.com

www.DelanyDentalCare.com

www.NorthShoreSleepDentist


 2015 Feb 15;12(2):177-86. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.5480.

Improvement of Cognitive and Psychomotor Performance in Patients with Mild to Moderate Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treated with Mandibular Advancement Device: A Prospective 1-Year Study.

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVES:

This study aimed to provide the evidence on effect of mandibular advancement device (MADtherapy on long-term cognitive and psychomotor performance, excessive daytime sleepiness, and quality of life in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

METHODS:

A total of 15 patients with mild to moderate OSA were treated with MAD therapy and they were followed up after 3 mo and 1 y oftherapy. The patients were tested on three different tests of cognitive and psychomotor performance using the computer-based system Complex Reactionmeter Drenovac (CRD-series) at baseline and at the time of follow-up, and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Scale were used to assess their quality of life and excessive daytime sleepiness, respectively.

RESULTS:

The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) decreased significantly from 22.9 ± 5.9 events/h at baseline, to 9.7 ± 4.5 events/h after 1 y ofMAD therapy (p < 0.001). There was significant improvement on all three CRD-series tests used after 1 y of MAD therapy, considering total test solving time (TTST) and minimal single task solving time (MinT), whereas total number of errors committed during the tests (TE) remained unchanged. Self-reported measures, excessive daytime sleepiness, and three domains of quality of life, social functioning, general health perception, and health change following MAD therapy showed significant improvements after 1 y of MAD therapy.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study demonstrates significant improvements in cognitive and psychomotor performance, particularly in the domain of perceptive abilities, convergent thinking (constructing and solving simple mathematical tasks) and psychomotor reaction times, excessive daytime sleepiness, and quality of life in patients with mild to moderate OSA following MAD therapy.


 2015 Dec 1;314(21):2280-93. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.16303.

CPAP vs Mandibular Advancement Devices and Blood Pressure in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with higher levels of blood pressure (BP), which can lead to increased cardiovascular risk.

OBJECTIVE:

To compare the association of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), mandibular advancement devices (MADs), and inactive control groups (placebo or no treatment) with changes in systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

DATA SOURCES:

The databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to the end of August 2015 and study bibliographies were reviewed.

STUDY SELECTION:

Randomized clinical trials comparing the effect of CPAP or MADs (vs each other or an inactive control) on BP in patients with obstructive sleep apnea were selected by consensus. Of 872 studies initially identified, 51 were selected for analysis.

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS:

Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by another reviewer. A network meta-analysis using multivariate random-effects meta-regression was used to estimate pooled differences between each intervention. Meta-regression was used to assess the association between trial characteristics and the reported effects of CPAP vs inactive control.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Absolute change in SBP and DBP from baseline to follow-up.

RESULTS:

Of the 51 studies included in the analysis (4888 patients), 44 compared CPAP with an inactive control, 3 compared MADs with an inactive control, 1 compared CPAP with an MAD, and 3 compared CPAP, MADs, and an inactive control. Compared with an inactive control, CPAP was associated with a reduction in SBP of 2.5 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.5 to 3.5 mm Hg; P < .001) and in DBP of 2.0 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.3 to 2.7 mm Hg; P < .001). A 1-hour-per-night increase in mean CPAP use was associated with an additional reduction in SBP of 1.5 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.3 mm Hg; P < .001) and an additional reduction in DBP of 0.9 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.3 to 1.4 mm Hg; P = .001). Compared with an inactive control, MADs were associated with a reduction in SBP of 2.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.8 to 3.4 mm Hg; P = .002) and in DBP of 1.9 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.5 to 3.2 mm Hg; P = .008). There was no significant difference between CPAP and MADs in their association with change in SBP (-0.5 mm Hg [95% CI, -2.0 to 1.0 mm Hg]; P = .55) or in DBP (-0.2 mm Hg [95% CI, -1.6 to 1.3 mm Hg]; P = .82).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

Among patients with obstructive sleep apnea, both CPAP and MADs were associated with reductions in BP. Network meta-analysis did not identify a statistically significant difference between the BP outcomes associated with these therapies.
 2015 Oct 13. [Epub ahead of print]

Comparison of effects of OSA treatment by MAD and by CPAP on cardiac autonomic function during daytime.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The present study compared the effects of mandibular advancement therapy (MAD) with continuous positive airway pressure therapy(CPAP) on daytime cardiac autonomic modulation in a wide range of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients under controlled conditions in a randomized, two-period crossover trial.

METHODS:

Forty OSA patients underwent treatment with MAD and with CPAP for 12 weeks each. At baseline and after each treatment period, patients were assessed by polysomnography as well as by a daytime cardiac autonomic function test that measured heart rate variability (HRV), continuous blood pressure (BP), and baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) under conditions of spontaneous breathing, with breathing at 6, 12, and 15/min.

RESULTS:

Both CPAP and MAD therapy substantially eliminated apneas and hypopneas. CPAP had a greater effect. During daytime with all four conditions of controlled breathing, three-minute mean values of continuous diastolic BP were significantly reduced for both MAD and CPAP therapy. At the same time, selective increases due to therapy with MAD were found for HRV high frequency (HF) values. No changes were observed for BRS in either therapy mode.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings indicate that both MAD and CPAP result in similar beneficial changes in cardiac autonomic function during daytime, especially in blood pressure. CPAP is more effective than MAD in eliminating respiratory events.

KEYWORDS:

Baroreceptor sensitivity; Blood pressure; Cardiac autonomic function; Continuous positive airway pressure; Heart rate variability; Mandibular advancement device; Obstructive sleep apnea
PMID:
 
26463420
 
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


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posted by Dr Shapira at 11:07 AM